Wednesday, August 20, 2014

Notes on: Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York

Edmund of Langley, 1st duke of York, also called (1362–85) Earl Of Cambridge    (born June 5, 1341, King’s Langley, Hertfordshire, Eng.—died Aug. 1, 1402, King’s Langley), fourth surviving legitimate son of King Edward III of England and founder of the House of York as a branch of the Plantagenet dynasty.
Created earl of Cambridge in 1362 and duke of York in 1385, Edmund was the least able of Edward III’s sons, and in the political strife of Richard II’s reign he played an ineffective part. Between 1359 and 1378 he served without distinction in several campaigns in France, Spain, and Brittany, and his one independent command, the Lisbon expedition of 1381–82 to aid King Ferdinand of Portugal against Castile, was a failure. York was appointed keeper of the realm during Richard II’s absence in Ireland in 1394–95, and again on the King’s departure for his second Irish expedition in May 1399. When Henry of Lancaster (afterward King Henry IV) invaded England (July), York tried to organize resistance, but he soon submitted (July 27), recognizing that Richard’s cause was lost.

(Source: HERE)
Edmund PLANTAGENET of Langley (1º D. York)
Born: 5 Jun 1341, King's Langley, Hertfordshire, England
Christened: King's Langley, Hertfordshire, England
Acceded: 6 Aug 1385, Hoselaw, Teviotdale
Died: 1 Aug 1402, King's Langley, Hertfordshire, England
Buried: Dominicans, Langley, Hertfordshire, England
Notes: Knight of the Garter. Earl of Cambridge 1362. See Europäisch Stammtafeln Bund II tafel 62. See The Complete Peerage v.XIIpII,pp.895-899.
Father: EDWARD III PLANTAGENET (King of England)
Mother: Phillippa of Hainault (Queen of England)
Married 1: Isabella of CASTILLA (D. York) (b. 1355 - d. 23 Dec 1393) (dau. of Pedro of Castilla and Maria De Padilla) ABT 1 Mar 1372, Hertford Castle, Hertfordshire, England
1. Edward PLANTAGENET (2º D. York)
2. Constance PLANTAGENET (B. Despencer)
3. Richard PLANTAGENET of Conisburgh (3º E. Cambridge)
Married 2: Joan HOLLAND (D. York) (b. ABT 1380 - d. 12 Apr 1434) (dau. of Thomas Holland, 2º E. Kent and Alice Fitzalan) (w.1 of Henry Scrope - w.2 of Henry Bromflete - m.4 William Willoughby) BEF 4 Nov 1393

(Source: HERE

Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Edmund of Langley
Edmund of Langley 2C Duke of York.jpg
Duke of York
SuccessorEdward of Norwich, 2nd Duke
SpouseIsabella of Castile
Joan Holland
IssueEdward, 2nd Duke of York
Constance of York, Countess of Gloucester
Richard, 3rd Earl of Cambridge
HouseHouse of Plantagenet (by birth)
House of York (founder)
FatherEdward III of England
MotherPhilippa of Hainault
Born5 June 1341
Kings LangleyHertfordshire
Died1 August 1402 (aged 61)
Kings Langley, Hertfordshire
BurialKings Langley, Hertfordshire
Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1st Earl of CambridgeKG (5 June 1341 – 1 August 1402) was a younger son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, the fourth of this Royal couple's five sons who lived to adulthood. Like so many medieval princes, Edmund gained his identifying nickname from his birthplace ofKings Langley Palace in Hertfordshire. He was the founder of the House of York, but it was through the marriage of his younger son, Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge to Ann Mortimer, great-granddaughter of Lionel of Antwerp, Edward III's second son, that the Yorkist faction in the Wars of the Roses made its claim on the throne (the other party in the Wars of the Roses, the incumbent Lancasters, being the male descendants of his elder brother, John of Gaunt) who was Edward III's third son.



Early years[edit]

On the death of his godfather, the Earl of Surrey, Edmund was granted the Earl's lands north of the Trent, primarily in Yorkshire. In 1359 he joined his father King Edward III on an unsuccessful military expedition to France and in 1361 was made a knight of the Garter. In 1362, at the age of twenty-one, he was created Earl of Cambridge by King Edward.[1]

Military career[edit]

Some argue that Edmund had little aptitude for war, but he took part in several military expeditions to France in the 1370s, and when his tomb was opened in the 1870s his skeleton showed evidence of wounds that strongly suggests his martial abilities have been under-rated. In 1369 he brought a retinue of 400 men-at-arms and 400 archers to serve with John Hastings, 2nd Earl of Pembroke, on campaign in Brittany and Angoulême. The following year he first joined Pembroke again on an expedition to relieve the fortress of Belle Perche and then accompanied the Black Prince on the campaign which resulted in the siege and sack of Limoges. In 1375 he sailed with Edmund Mortimer, Earl of March, to relieve Brest, but after some initial success a truce was declared.
In 1381 he led an abortive expedition to join with the Portuguese in attacking Castile, but after months of indecisiveness a peace was again declared (between Spain and Portugal) and Edmund had to lead his malcontented troops home.
He was appointed Constable of Dover Castle and Warden of the Cinque Ports on 12 June 1376 and held office until 1381. He acted as Keeper of the Realm in 1394/95 when Richard II campaigned in Ireland and presided over Parliament in 1395. He was also keeper of the realm in 1396 during the king's brief visit to France to collect his child-bride Isabella. The Duke was left as Custodian of the Realm in the summer of 1399 when Richard II departed for an extended campaign in Ireland. In late June the exiled Henry Bolingbroke landed at Bridlington in Yorkshire. He raised an army to resist Bolingbroke, then decided instead to join him, for which he was well rewarded. He thereafter remained loyal to the new Lancastrian regime as Bolingbroke overthrew Richard II to become King Henry IV.

Later life[edit]

On 6 August 1385, Edmund was elevated to Duke of York[2]
Towards the end of his life, in 1399, he was appointed Warden of the West March for a short period.[3]
Edmund of Langley died in his birthplace and was buried there in the church of the mendicant friars. His dukedom passed to his eldest son, Edward.


Langley's first wife, Isabella, was a daughter of King Peter of Castile and María de Padilla. They had two sons and a daughter:
After Isabella's death in 1392, Langley married his cousin Joan Holland, whose great-grandfather Edmund of Woodstock, 1st Earl of Kent, was the half-brother of Langley's grandfather Edward II; she and Langley were thus both descended from King Edward I. The marriage produced no children.
Langley's first wife, Infanta Isabella of Castile, was the sister of Infanta Constance of Castile, the second wife of Langley's brother John of Gaunt.
His second wife, Lady Joan Holland, a granddaughter of Joan of Kent, Princess of Wales (mother of Richard II), was the sister of Margaret Holland who married firstly to Gaunt's son John Beaufort, 1st Earl of Somersetand secondly to Thomas of Lancaster, grandson of John of Gaunt by his son King Henry IV. Another sister, Eleanor Holland was mother-in-law to Richard Neville, 5th Earl of Salisbury, grandson of John of Gaunt by his daughter Joan Beaufort, Countess of Westmorland. Yet another sister, Alianore Holland was mother to Anne de Mortimer, wife to Langley's son, Richard of Conisburgh. Another sibling of Lady Joan, Edmund Holland, 4th Earl of Kent would father a child by Langley's daughter Constance of York; it has been claimed there was a marriage betrothal between the two, but no evidence that they were officially married.[4]

Shakespeare's Duke of York[edit]

As a son of the sovereign, Edmund bore the arms of the sovereign, differenced by alabel argent, on each point three torteaux.[5]
Edmund, the 1st Duke of York is a major character in Shakespeare's Richard II. In the play, Edmund resigns his position as an adviser to his nephew, Richard II, but is reluctant to betray the king. He eventually agrees to side with Bolingbroke to help him regain the lands Richard confiscated after the death of Bolingbroke's father, John of Gaunt. After Bolingbroke deposes Richard and is crowned Henry IV, Edmund discovers a plot by his son, Aumerle to assassinate the new king. Edmund exposes the plot, but his wife Isabella convinces Henry to pardon her son.

Edmund Plantagenet - Duke of York -  Sir Knight Of The Garter APR 1361Earl Of Cambridge 13 NOV 1362
born - England - Kings Langley, Hertfordshire 5 JUN 1341
died - England - Kings Langley, Hertfordshire - Church of the Dominicans 1 AUG 1402
married - Hertford Castle - bet 1 JAN AND 30 APR 1372
Isabel Of Castileborn -  Spain - Morales, Zamora 1355
died -  England - Kings Langley, Hertfordshire - Church of the Dominicans 23 DEC 1392
1.Constance Plantagenet Princess of England 1374 - Castle Conisborough
2.Richard Plantagenet  SEP 1375

(From: Find A Grave)

Birth: Jun. 5, 1341
Kings Langley
Hertfordshire, England
Death: Aug. 1, 1402
Kings Langley
Hertfordshire, England

Edmund of Langley, 1st Duke of York, 1st Earl of Cambridge, Knight of the Garter, Warden of the West March. Founder of the House of York.

Edmund was the seventh of twelve children and fifth of seven son of King Edward III of England and Philippa of Hainault, brother to Edward the Black Prince and John of Gaunt. Grandson of Edward II King of England and Isabella of France, William I Count of Hainhaut and Joan of Valois.

Edmund was the husband of Isabella, the daughter of King Petro of Castile and Maria de Padilla, and the sister of his brother, John of Gaunt's second wife. They had two sons and one daughter:
* Edward of Norwich, 2nd Duke of York
* Richard of Conisburgh, 3rd Earl of Cambridge, executed for treason
* Constance of York, ancestor of Queen Anne Neville, the wife of Richard II

Isabel died in 1392, Edmund married his cousin, Joan Holland. She was the granddaughter of Joan of Kent, Princess of Wales, and the great granddaughter of Edmund of Woodstock and the 1st Earl of Kent, the half brother of Edmund's grandfather, Edward II. She was also the sister of Margaret Holland who married John of Gaunt's son, John Beaufort. This marriage was intensely woven with intertwined relationships. They had no issue.

Edmund, as were his peers and siblings, was named after his birth location, Edmund was born at Langley, and became known as Edmund of Langley.

Edmund was granted the lands belonging to his godfather, Richard FitzAlan, the Earl of Surrey, at Richard's death. His father made him a Knight of the Garter in 1362, and Earl of Cambridge in 1362 at the age of twenty-one, finally becoming the Duke of York in 1385. Edmund also became the Constable of Dover Castle and the Warden of Cinque Ports, Keeper of the Realm and Custodian of the Realm.

King Richard II left England for his Irish campaign when Henry Bolingbroke landed in Yorkshire to take the throne. Edmund gathered an army to resist but ended up joining forces with Bolingbroke, and was richly rewarded for his loyalties which extended to King Henry IV.

Edmund of Langley died in his birthplace, and was buried there, in the church of the friars. Originally interred in the Church of the Friary at Langley, the remains of the Duke and his wife were brought to All Saint's, King's Langley, about the year 1574. Contemporary historians and genealogists agree with Evans' view that the skeleton in the leaden coffin is Anne Mortimer's. His dukedom passed to his eldest son, Edward.

Family links:
   King Edward III (1312 - 1377)
  Philippa d'Avesnes of Hainault (1311 - 1369)

  Isabella Perez de Castile (1355 - 1392)

   Constance of York (1374 - 1416)*
  Richard of Conisbrough (1385 - 1415)*

  Joan Perrers Skerne (____ - 1431)**
  Edward Plantagenet (1330 - 1376)*
  Isabel Plantagenet Coucy (1332 - 1379)*
  Joan Plantagenet (1334 - 1348)*
  Prince William Of Hatfield (1337 - 1337)*
  Lionel Plantagenet (1338 - 1368)*
  John 1st Duke of Lancaster Plantagenet (1340 - 1399)*
  Edmund of Langley (1341 - 1402)
  Blanche de la Tour (1342 - 1342)*
  Mary de Waltham (1344 - 1362)*
  Margaret Plantagnet Hastings (1346 - 1361)*
  William de Windsor (1348 - 1348)*
  Thomas Plantagenet (1355 - 1397)*

*Calculated relationship

includes the remains of Edmund of Langley, his wife Isabella of Castile and their daughter in law Anne Mortimer

All Saints Churchyard
Kings Langley
Dacorum Borough
Hertfordshire, England
Plot: north-east corner of the chancel

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